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  1. Start by checking the solar potential of your roof or property on the NY Solar Map. If your roof is not suitable, learn about 'Community Shared Solar' options.
  2. Obtain an understanding of your electrical energy use by looking at a full year of your electricity bills.
  3. Seek bids from multiple solar companies and installers that guarantee their work. A solar installer or general contractor should also check to see if your roof needs to be reinforced or replaced.You can connect with an installer by using the 'Get a Quote' feature on the NY Solar Map when you input your address. Whenever possible use professionals certified by the North American Board of Certified Energy Practitioners who are on the New York State Research and Development Authority's (NYSERDA) Solar Electric Installers list. Your selected installer or 'contractor' will inspect your location to determine the best system size and placement options, prepare and submit the associated paperwork and perform all aspects of the installation. 
  4. Visit the '10 Steps' and 'Homeowners Resources' below to learn about the available PV incentives and financing options as well as Net Metering and VDER to ensure that you have the information you need to make the best decisions.


There are a variety of solar PV technologies available for your home or business. Read below to learn more.


Solar electric systems, otherwise known as photovoltaic (PV) systems, convert sunlight into electricity. Solar cells, the basic building blocks of a PV system, consist of semiconductor materials. When sunlight is absorbed by these materials, the solar energy knocks electrons loose from their atoms. This phenomenon is called the "photoelectric effect." These free electrons then travel into a circuit built into the solar cell to form electrical current. Multiple solar cells are included in solar modules, which are wired together into an array that will generate electricity for your home. Only sunlight of certain wavelengths will work efficiently to create electricity. PV systems can still produce electricity on cloudy days, but not as much as on a sunny day. For more about the basics of PV, visit the Department of Energy, NREL, EIA, and Solar Technologies Program websites for more solar energy resources. 

Most PV systems today connect to the local utility system so the consumer can still receive electricity from the grid to power their home at night. Net Metering allows the consumer to send any excess electricity generated during the day from the consumer's solar system back out to the grid in exchange for credits. Using the free electricity from your solar system will lower your electric bills and decrease your carbon footprint.


PV panels produce DC electricity, which is converted into AC power by an inverter. Generally there is only one inverter for an entire array of panels, but some systems have a newer technology called micro-inverters where each solar panel feeds into a small inverter. Micro-inverters are more efficient, although they can also be more expensive. A similar new technology is ‘DC optimizers’, which provide similar efficiencies and panel-level monitoring but are connected to a central inverter. Appropriate technologies vary depending on the application, and you should consult with a certified solar installer to decide what is right for your needs.


The performance of a solar cell is measured in terms of its efficiency at converting sunlight into electricity. There are a variety of solar cell materials available, which vary in conversion efficiency.


A solar cell consists of semiconductor materials. Silicon remains the most popular material for solar cells, including these types:

* Monocrystalline or single crystal silicon
* Multicrystalline silicon
* Polycrystalline silicon
* Amorphous silicon

The absorption coefficient of a material indicates how far light with a specific wavelength (or energy) can penetrate the material before being absorbed. A small absorption coefficient means that light is not readily absorbed by the material. Again, the absorption coefficient of a solar cell depends on two factors: the material making up the cell, and the wavelength or energy of the light being absorbed.


Thin film solar cells use layers of semiconductor materials only a few micrometers thick. Thin film technology has made it possible for solar cells to now double as these materials:

* Rooftop or solar shingles
* Roof tiles
* Building facades
* Glazing for skylights or atria.

Thin-film rooftop or solar shingles, made with various non-crystalline materials, are just now starting to enter the residential market. The following are benefits of these solar shingles:

* Attractive integration into homes
* Dual purpose: serves as both roofing material and electricity generator
* Durability

Commercially-available solar shingles generally have lower efficiencies and greater expense compared with the standard small solar electric system.

For more information on solar PV technologies, visit the Department of Energy, NREL, EIA, and Solar Technologies Program websites.



Every solar project should begin with an energy audit, which your installer generally provides. A basic energy audit is required in order to receive NYSERDA incentives for PV projects. Energy efficiency measures can help to maximize the financial and environmental benefits of investing in solar by substantially reducing your base energy load. There are many ways you can reduce electricity use in your home and help reduce your energy bills.

Green Gateways Interneship

  Energy Audit

           Energy Efficiency Resources

Department of Energy
Learn more about national energy efficiency on the Department of Energy Energy Efficiency webpage.

The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority,
a public benefit corporation, offers objective information and analysis, innovative programs, technical expertise, and funding to help New Yorkers increase energy efficiency, save money, use renewable energy, and reduce reliance on fossil fuels. NYSERDA professionals work to protect the environment and create clean energy jobs. To get started, please contact the NYSERDA Economic Development Growth Extension (EDGE) Program Regional Outreach Contractors (ROC) in your area.


NYS Utility Energy Efficiency Programs


Central Hudson

 -  Residential and Non-residential

  •  ‘Trade Ally’ is the name Central Hudson uses for a local contractor who performs high-quality installations of energy efficient heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment that meets the standards of Central Hudson's energy efficiency programs. Many Trade Allies are plumbers as well.

-  The Appliance Recycling Program is a residential energy efficiency program to reduce energy use by removing less-efficient refrigerators and freezers from residence

-  Commercial Lighting

-  The Company uses electric and hybrid vehicles

-  Promote purchasing such vehicles and installing Level 2 chargers


Con Edison 

  •  Residential

Rebates - Con Edison provides rebates of up to $1000 on select high-efficiency equipment

  • Small Business

Free Professional Consultation on Energy Usage

Free Thermostat - Comes with $50 check

Neighborhood Program - “Our Neighborhood Program delivers energy-saving and management solutions to local communities where the demand for electricity is expected to grow significantly because of the vitality in businesses and housing markets.”

  • Multifamily

Free Professional Consultation on Energy Usage - May include free services and rebates

Smart AC kit

  • Commercial/Industrial

Rebates - Energy Efficiency Incentives

Demand Response Program - “Con Edison's demand response programs pay over 800 participating customers who are able to temporarily reduce electric usage when requested by Con Edison.”

Demand Management Incentives - “The Demand Management Program offers enhanced incentives for energy efficient technology that will help improve operational performance of buildings and reduce electric demand.”




In Home Energy Assessments

Residential Energy Affordability Partnership - Free Inspection and Installation for eligible customers

Online Energy Analyzer

Free Energy Assessment


New Construction Rebates

Energy Partner Agreement - “The PSEG Long Island Efficiency Partner list is made up of contractors, distributors, suppliers and manufacturers of energy efficient equipment. The list also includes skilled professionals such as architects, engineers and energy consultants that assist PSEG Long Island in meeting their energy savings goals.”



National Grid

-  Energy assessments, Natural gas conversions, rebates and more

Small Business - Direct Install and Custom Directed Options

Medium-to-Large Businesses - “National Grid will help to identify and prioritize energy saving opportunities and provide technical services that will facilitate the installation of premium energy efficient equipment in your facility. “




  •  Residential

Rebate - Replacing old equipment with high efficiency natural gas equipment

Multifamily Energy Efficiency Program - Equipment replacement and rebates

  • Commercial

Small Business - Free Assessment and 70% cost covers

Commercial/Industrial - Webinar training and rebates

Non-residential multi family -  Equipment replacement and rebates



Orange and Rockland


  • Green Team - Energy efficiency experts provide the resources and incentives for energy efficiency


- Appliance Recycling - $50 payback for refrigerator/freezer

- Electric Appliance Rebates - $10-$50 if you purchase an ENERGY STAR air conditioner or dehumidifier.

- Gas Appliance Rates - $2,050 in rebates from O&R for high efficiency replacement

- Gas Conversion Rebates - Natural Gas switch for $500 rebate

- Commercial and Industrial Programs - Prescriptive and Custom rebates for installation of high-efficiency equipment

- Small Business Program - “Business owners can get a free energy survey and upgrade their lighting for 30% of the installed costs.”

- Demand Response Program - “O&R customers who participate in a demand response program can get paid to use less energy.”



Rochester Gas and Electric (Share many programs with NYSEG)


-  Free Energy Saver Products

-  Refrigerator/Freezer Recycling

-  High Efficiency Natural Gas Equipment Rebates

-  Local Wind Energy Program


  • Commercial

Demand Response Program -”Our Demand Response programs offer incentives to select residential, small business and industrial customers businesses when they reduce electricity use during times of peak demand”

Residential Agricultural Discount - Discount on energy bill

Energy Efficiency- Partnered with NYSEG




Solar Thermal

In hot and sunny regions, solar thermal systems can be a great decision. But even in New York's relatively cold climate, solar water heaters can provide year-round hot water for homes and swimming pools.

The economics of solar water heaters depend largely on the available incentives and on the type of fuel being displaced. For example, a customer that has an expensive source of energy to heat their water, such as electricity or propane, will receive greater benefits from going solar than a customer using relatively lower cost natural gas. For more information on solar thermal systems, NY incentives and installers, please visit the NYSERDA Website.


Solar water heating systems include storage tanks and solar collectors. There are two types of solar water heating systems: active, which have circulating pumps and controls, and passive, which don't.

Most solar water heaters require a well-insulated storage tank. Solar storage tanks have an additional outlet and inlet connected to and from the collector. In two-tank systems, the solar water heater preheats water before it enters the conventional water heater. In one-tank systems, the back-up heater is combined with the solar storage in one tank.

Three types of solar collectors are used for residential applications:

Flat-plate collector

Glazed flat-plate collectors are insulated, weatherproofed boxes that contain a dark absorber plate under one or more glass or plastic (polymer) covers. Unglazed flat-plate collectors (typically used for solar pool heating) have a dark absorber plate, made of metal or polymer, without a cover or enclosure.

Integral collector-storage systems

Also known as ICS or batch systems, they feature one or more black tanks or tubes in an insulated, glazed box. Cold water first passes through the solar collector, which preheats the water. The water then continues on to the conventional backup water heater, providing a reliable source of hot water. They should be installed only in mild-freeze climates because the outdoor pipes could freeze in severe, cold weather.

Evacuated-tube solar collectors

These feature parallel rows of transparent glass tubes. Each tube contains a glass outer tube and metal absorber tube attached to a fin. The fin's coating absorbs solar energy but inhibits radiative heat loss. These collectors are used more frequently for commercial applications.


Low Temperature (> 30C) 
–Swimming pool heating
–Ventilation air preheating

Medium Temperature (30C – 100C) 
–Domestic water and space heating
–Commercial cafeterias, laundries, hotels
–Industrial process heating

High Temperature (> 100C) 
–Industrial process heating
–Electricity generation

Solar thermal and photovoltaics working together